Centrifugal Pumps are the most common type of process pump today and the design offers multiple advantages.
Centrifugal pumps are usually the preferred choice for applications that are pumping lower viscosity (thin) liquids and for systems that require high flow rates.
Centrifugal pumps operate by using rotating impellers that are immersed in the fluid inside of a casing. The flow and pressure velocity of kinetic energy forces the fluid around the casing to the discharge outlet. Liquids are moved at a higher velocity with faster impeller rotation, or larger diameter impellers.
The impeller is the key component of a centrifugal pump. It consists of a series of curved vanes. These are normally located between two discs (an enclosed impeller). For fluids with entrained solids, an open or semi-open impeller (backed by a single disc) is preferred.
There are two basic designs of pump casing: volute and diffuser. The purpose in both designs is to translate the fluid flow into a controlled discharge at pressure.
In a volute casing, the impeller is offset, effectively creating a curved funnel with an increasing cross-sectional area towards the pump outlet. This design causes the fluid pressure to increase towards the outlet. Volute cases are better suited to applications involving entrained solids or high viscosity fluids when it is advantageous to avoid the added constrictions of diffuser vanes.
In diffuser casing, the fluid pressure increases as fluid is expelled between a set of stationary vanes surrounding the impeller. Diffuser designs can be tailored for specific applications and can therefore be more efficient.
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Similar to a centrifugal pump, however, pitot tube design is capable of very high discharge pressures in a single stage. Ideal applications include plant wash-down and high pressure hydrocarbon processing in refineries (oil and gas), central cleaning systems, hydro-blast cleaning, boiler feed, and water injection.
Centrifugal pumps are often used for pumping thin liquids – low viscosity fluids – in both industrial, commercial & municipal applications. This includes water, solvents, organics, oils, acids, bases, etc. Your specific application will help determine the type of centrifugal pump design that will work best. Here are some broad guidelines.
|Centrifugal Pump Type
|Canned motor pump||Hydrocarbons, chemicals where any leakage is not permitted||Seal-less; impeller directly attached to the motor rotor; wetted parts contained in can|
|Magnetic drive pump||Seal-less; impeller driven by close coupled magnets|
|Chopper/grinder pump||Wastewater in industrial, chemical, municipal and food processing||Impeller fitted with grinding teeth to chop solids|
|Circulating pump||Heating, ventilation and air conditioning||Inline compact design|
|Multistage pump||High pressure applications||Multiple impellers for increased discharge pressures|
|Cryogenic pump||Liquid natural gas, coolants||Special construction materials to tolerate low temperatures|
|Trash pump||Draining mines, pits, construction sites||Designed to pump water containing solid debris|
|Slurry pump||Mining, mineral processing, industrial slurries||Designed to handle and withstand highly abrasive slurries|
When you need centrifugal pump parts and accessories, Edelmann can help you. We offer many different pump parts, and if we don’t have it, we can arrange for a custom made pump part.